Справочник лекарств
Каталог лекарств
The alkaloids and other vegetable matters having cytostatic impact (6)
The alkylating substances (24)
Amino acids (10)
Analgesic means (56)
Vasoprotectives (10)
Anorexigenic means (3)
Antagonists of calcium ions (8)
Antiarrhytmic drugs (15)
Antigiperlipoproteinemichesky (anti-atherosclerotic) means (11)
Antimetabolites (24)
Antiseptics (87)
Vitamins and related drugs (66)
Hepatoprotective means (8)
Antihypertensives (10)
Histamine and antihistaminic drugs (22)
Hormone. Ven., their antagonists applied mainly at treatment oncological a disease (14)
Hormones, their analogs and anti-hormonal drugs (93)
Diuretic means (25)
Dopamine and dofaminergichesky drugs (2)
Bile-expelling means (16)
Immunosuppressive drugs (immunosuppressors) (6)
Cardiotonic means (18)
Expectorants (25)
Plasma substituting and disintoxication solutions (23)
Drugs for parenteral nutrition (12)
Drugs for prevention and treatment of radiation sickness (5)
The drugs substituting synovial and plaintive liquids (0)
The drugs used for correction of an acid-base state and ionic balance in organiz (48)
The drugs stimulating processes of immunity (13)
Prostaglandin and their synthetic derivatives (2)
Antineoplastic antibiotics (10)
Anticonvulsants (17)
Different diagnostic means (5)
Different drugs the stimulating metabolic processes (56)
Emetic and antiemetic drugs (7)
X-ray contrast means (13)
Sahara (2)
Serotonin, serotonergic and antiserotoninovy drugs (6)
Synthetic antineoplastic drugs of different groups (5)
Depletive (30)
Sleeping medicines (11)
Special means for treatment of alcoholism (4)
Specific antidotes; sorbents; complexons (15)
Means for treatment of parkinsonism (14)
Anesthetics (14)
The means influencing fibrillation (34)
The means operating on peripheral cholinergic processes (57)
The means operating mainly on peripheral adrenergic processes. (38)
The means increasing arterial blood pressure (2)
The means lowering sensitivity of nerve terminations (55)
The means relaxing muscles of a uterus (tokolitika) (4)
The means stimulating uterus muscles (17)
The means stimulating receptors of mucous membranes, skin and hypodermic fabrics (31)
The means which are slowing down formation of uric concrements and facilitating their removal with urine (20)
The means improving blood supply of bodies and fabrics (48)
Fermental drugs and inhibitors of enzymes (35)
The enzymes applied to treatment of oncological diseases (1)
The photosensitizing and photoprotective drugs (6)
Cholelitholytic means (2)
New drugs on the website (1)
Psychotropic drugs (112)
Khimioterapevticheskiyey means (221)
Last comments
04.07.2016 - HOPE
03.07.2016 - Ella
03.07.2016 - Ira
29.06.2016 -
23.06.2016 -
20.06.2016 - Natalya
18.06.2016 -
18.06.2016 - the novel
16.06.2016 - Elena
15.06.2016 - the Hairpin

Psychotropic drugs

Nootropic drugs
Normotimichesky drugs
The means stimulating the central nervous system
Mean the medicines having specific therapeutic or preventive effect on mentally sick by psychotropic drugs.

The means applied in the different fields of medicine can have any given impact on mental functions. Signs of excitement or oppression of central nervous system, disturbance of attention and intellectual working capacity, other central effects are quite often noted as by-effects when using different drugs.

Distinctive feature of psychotropic drugs is their specific positive influence on mental functions providing their medical activity at disturbances of activity of central nervous system.

The first modern psychotropic drugs were created in the early fifties of the XX century. Before the arsenal of the means applied to treatment of mental diseases was very limited and low-specific. Hypnotic drugs and sedatives, insulin, caffeine were the main drugs used for this purpose; Corazolum was applied to convulsive therapy of schizophrenia. In neurotic disorders used mainly bromides, sedatives of plant origin, hypnotic drugs in small (sedative) doses.

In 1952 the specific efficiency of Chlorpromazinum (aminazine) and reserpine at treatment of mentally sick was found. Numerous analogs of aminazine and reserpine were soon synthesized and studied and it was shown that derivatives of these and other classes of chemical compounds can have favorable effect at treatment of schizophrenia and other psychoses, maniacal syndromes, neurotic disorders, acute alcoholic psychoses and other disturbances of the central nervous system functions.

In 1957 the first antidepressants (iproniazid, Imipraminum) were discovered. Then found tranquilizing properties of meprobamate (Meprotanum) and derivatives of benzodiazepine.

The new group of psychotropic drugs - <ноотропов>which first representative was a piracetam appeared in the early seventies.

The section of pharmacology which is engaged in studying the substances entering into these groups received the name<психофармакология>, and drugs of the specified types of action began to be called psychopharmacological means. These means were united in the general group<психотропные препараты>.

Now mean a wide range of the substances affecting mental functions, an emotional state and behavior by psychopharmacological means. Many of them found application as valuable medicines in psychiatric and neurologic practice and also in somatic medicine. They are appointed the patient therapeutic, surgical, oncological and other profiles for treatment and prevention of mental disorders of boundary level.

Soon after discovery of the first psychotropic drugs an attempt of their classification was made.

In 1967 the Congress of psychiatrists in Zurich suggested to divide these drugs into two groups: a) the antipsychotic substances applied mainly at heavy disturbances of activity of central nervous system (psychoses) and b) the tranquilizing substances applied at less significant disturbances of the central nervous system functions, mainly in neurosises with a condition of mental tension and fear. Aminazine and other derivatives of a fenotiazin, reserpine belong to antipsychotic substances on this classification; to tranquilizers - pro-pan-diol derivatives (Meprotanum, etc.) and diphenylmethane derivatives (amizyl, etc.).

Antipsychotic substances originally were called<нейроплегики>. The term (the means blocking nervous system) was offered for designation of the substances causing adjustable braking of a neurovegetative system and applied to an artificial dream with cooling of an organism (hibernation). The term<транквилизаторы> corresponds to a concept<успокаивающие средства>. Tranquilizers were designated also as<атарактими><антифобические средства><анксиолитические вещества>, etc. The Greek word<аtаrаxia> means<спокойствие духа>,<равнодушие> (from here). The term, or, is connected with ability of some drugs to have the calming effect at the morbid conditions which are followed by fear and emotional tension.

In 1966 the scientific group of WHO offered the following classification for psychotropic drugs:
  • A. Neuroleptics, they <антипсихотические средства>which were earlier designated as big tranquilizers or<атарактики>; derivatives of a fenotiazin, phenyl propyl ketone, thioxanthene, reserpine and similar to it substances concern them. These substances render therapeutic effect in psychoses and other mental disorders. The side effect caused by these substances - extrapyramidal symptoms is characteristic.

  • B. The anxiolytic sedatives which were earlier called<малые транквилизаторы>, lowering pathological fear, tension, excitement; they usually have anticonvulsant activity, do not cause vegetative and extrapyramidal collateral zffekt; can cause accustoming. Meprobamate (Meprotanum) and its analogs, derivatives of a diazepoksid (benzodiazepine), including chlordiazepoxide (Chlozepidum), diazepam (Sibazonum), etc. concern them.

  • B. Antidepressants - the substances applied at treatment of pathological depressions. Sometimes they are called<психические энергизаторы> as well<тимолептики>. This group includes ingibitorm MAO, Imipraminum (imipramine) and other tricyclic antidepressants.

  • G. Psychostimulants to which Phenaminum and its analogs, caffeine belong.

  • D. Psychotomimetics (hallucinogens) called also<психозомиметические вещества>. Diethyl amide of lysergic acid, a mescaline, a psilocybin, etc. belong to this group.

The terminology accepted in these classifications to some extent remained still, however the maintenance of concepts changed a little. Also classification of psychotropic drugs is specified.

In terms of applied medicine it is more reasonable to divide psychotropic drugs into the following main groups: a) neuroleptics (antipsychotic means); b) tranquilizers; c) sedatives; d) antidepressants; e) normotimichesky means; e) nootropic means; g) psychogogic means.

Each of the specified groups of psychotropic drugs is divided into subgroups depending on the chemical structure, the mechanism of action, pharmacological properties and therapeutic use of the drugs entering into these groups.

Psikhozomimetichesky substances, or the hallucinogens having strong psychotropic effect, but not having use as medicines are not included into this classification of psychotropic drugs.

© medicine-cure.com - the reference book of drugs, 2016
Attention! Information on the website is intended only for workers of health care!