At sharp blood losses, shock of various origin, the microcirculation disturbances, intoxications and other processes connected with change of a hemodynamics often apply so-called plasma substituting solutions to substitution of plasma. Sometimes they are called also blood substitutes or carried to blood preparations. However, these drugs do not perform blood function as do not contain uniform elements of blood (if they are specially not added). They are also not sources of power stocks (if power substances - glucose, amino acids, etc. are specially not added to them).
On functional properties and appointment, plasma substituting solutions divide into a number of groups: a) hemodynamic; b) disintoxication; c) regulators of water-salt and acid-base balance.
Hemodynamic drugs are intended mainly for treatment and prevention of shock of various origin, normalization of arterial blood pressure and improvement in general of hemodynamic indicators. They have rather big molecular weight close to the molecular mass of albumine of blood, and at introduction to a blood flow, is rather long circulate in the blood channel, maintaining arterial blood pressure at the necessary level. The main representative of this group is Polyglucinum.
Polyglucinum is one of the plasma substitutes containing glucose polymer solution - a dextran. The dextran can have various extent of polymerization and respectively different molecular weight; from it blood-substituting (plasma substituting) solutions of various functional purpose can be received respectively.
The solutions containing a dextran with a relative molecular weight about 60000 are used as hemodynamic means, and with a smaller molecular weight (30 000 - 40 000) - as disintoxication means. The last promote restoration of a blood-groove in small capillaries, reduce aggregation of uniform elements of blood. At introduction to a blood flow, they strengthen processes of moving of liquid of fabrics to the blood channel, increase a diuresis and, being allocated with kidneys, promote processes of a detoxication. The representative of the disintoxication solutions containing a dextran is reopoliglyukin. As disintoxication and hemodynamic means along with drugs of a dextran also other substances with rather high polymeric weight are used (polyvinylpirrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, gelatin, etc.).
As disintoxication solutions and also solutions applied to regulation of water-salt and acid-base balance isotonic solution of sodium of chloride and other saline solutions have broad use.