Many diseases demand use of the medicines stimulating the immune system. It can be infectious processes with a slow chronic course, the burn disease, a leukopenia, radiation injuries, pretumor states, tumoral processes and is a lot of other diseases. The immunotherapy is used also at intensive treatment by antibiotics, glucocorticoids and other medicines.
Drugs of various chemical structure belong to immunostimulators: levamisole, Prodigiosanum and pyrogenal (lipopolysaccharides of microbic origin), Thymalinum and taktivin (fractions of a thymus gland), methyluracil, pentoxyl , etc.
Drugs for immunity
Levamisole (decarice) has the normalizing influence on the immune system of an organism (in cases of its excessive activation or easing) through impact on a differentiation, metabolism and functions of T lymphocytes (mainly suppressors, but also killers and helper). It increases development by lymphocytes of internal causes of mutual regulation, antibodyformation, promotes activation of nonspecific mechanisms of protection (phagocytosis, products of interferon), stimulates processyreparativny regeneration, slows down development of inflammation due to decrease in permeability of blood vessels and exudation, suppresses education of free radicals.
The mechanism of immunopromoting effect of levamisole is connected with change in fabrics of a ratio of cyclic nucleotides tsGMF/tsAMF towards increase in the first. Increase of concentration of tsGMF is followed by activation of proliferation of mature T - and In - lymphocytes, increase in secretion of humoral factors of mutual regulation (lymphokines). At shift of a ratio of cyclic nucleotides towards tsAMF the differentiation of young T - and V-lymphocytes amplifies.
Levamisole is appointed at primary and secondary immunodeficiences, persistent or recurrent infections, a pseudorheumatism, a system lupus erythematosus, nonspecific diseases of lungs, a chronic glomerulonephritis, a peptic ulcer of a stomach with a recurrent course, a helminthic invasion (as antivermicular), a heavy herpes infection, etc.
Prodigiosanum and pyrogenal belong to lipopolysaccharides. They promote increase in antibodyformation by plasmocytes, activate T lymphocytes, stimulate phagocytal activity of macrophages (including a reticuloendothelial system), a gipotalamo-hypophysial system, increase the content of endogenous interferon, complement components. The antibodyformation activation mechanism also (see levamisole) is connected with impact on universal regulators of the cellular mechanism - cyclic nucleotides: fast increase in concentration of tsGMF and slow - tsAMF leading to stimulation of proliferation and a differentiation of V-lymphocytes in plasmocytes and to increase in development of antibodies. Lipopolysaccharides activate metabolic processes in macrophages, promote increase of their functional activity and increase local resistance of fabrics (content of interferon, properdin, lysozyme , etc.). As a rule, they slow down generalized and local inflammatory processes, strengthen reactions of restoration and regeneration.
In medicine in connection with the best shipping use Prodigiosanum more often. Dose it individually, enter intramusculary, it is inhalation or intranazalno and appoint at a sharp and chronic course of various infectious diseases, especially against the background of reduced immune responsiveness to antibiotic treatment, at treatment of a staphylococcal infection, bronchopulmonary diseases (including tuberculosis), vyalozazhivayushchy wounds, during the postoperative period.
At Prodigiosanum use perhaps short-term fervescence, a general malaise, pain on the place of an injection and other localization.
Thymus gland drugs - Thymalinum, taktivin, (t activin), timogen, timoptin apply in persistent infections, surgical pathology (including in gerontological practice), an oncopathology, herpes , etc. All of them activate cell-mediated and T-dependent antibody-mediated immunity, normalize the T ratio - and V-lymphocytes. strengthen phagocytosis, stimulate (at least, taktivin) products of lymphocytes of a- and g-of interferon).
Thymalinum represents the high cleaning gormonopodobny factor of a thymus gland received from a thymus of calfs. It promotes recovery of immune responsiveness, working similarly from timopoetina, and is appointed in acute and persistent purulent infection, a burn disease, trophic and beam ulcers, chronic pneumonia, intensive antibiotic treatment.
Taktivin apply in infectious diseases, sepsis, a lymphogranulomatosis, tuberculosis, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, in before - and the postoperative period.
Methyluracil (methacil), pentoxyl, Natrium nucleinicum, orotovy acid are pyrimidine derivatives. The mechanism of their action is connected with increase in intracellular activity of the enzymes participating in synthesis of nucleic acids: At the same time synthesis and concentration of nucleic acids, structural and fermental proteins, components of a system of a complement, lysozyme, interferon, immunoglobulins of all types, phagocytal activity macro - and microphages, i.e. nonspecific and specific immunoreactivity increases.
Most often apply methyluracil (for acceleration of reparative angenesis at burn and radiation injuries, leukopenias, hepatitis, colitis, a peptic ulcer of a stomach, chronic gastritises with secretory insufficiency, etc.
Well proved in clinic of sodium dezoksiribonukleat (Natrium nucleinicum). It has positive impact on specific and nonspecific mechanisms of immunity: stimulates the systems of T lymphocytes (helper and killers) and V-lymphocytes, regeneration processes, a leukopoiesis, phagocytosis. It is applied at leukopenias, chronic inflammatory processes.
For correction of the immune status Spleninum and Polybiolinum (drugs to immunity of natural origin), as a rule, in combination with other (more active) means are applied.
Perspective and highly active immunotracks are drugs of interferon (reaferon, laferon, gamma feron, leykinferon).