In oncological practice a number of hormonal drugs, first of all androgens is used (see Drugs of male sex hormones Testosterone, etc.), corticosteroids are oestrogenic (see Drugs of female sex hormones Estrone, etc.) (see Drugs of bark of adrenal glands the Cortisone, etc.). Recently the drugs which are slowing down effect of estrogen (anti-estrogen) and androgens (anti-androgens) became widespread also. Some drugs (hloditan, aminoglutethimide) specifically suppress secretion by adrenal glands of glucocorticosteroids (cortisol).
These drugs are used mainly in hormonedependent tumors. Estrogen is appointed when suppression of action in an organism of androgens or strengthening of activity of estrogen is shown (in a prostate cancer). Androgens apply when increase in activity of androgens or reduction of activity of estrogen is shown (in a breast cancer, etc.). In a breast cancer and a uterus applies also progestins (pregnenoldione caproate, a medroksiprogesterona acetate, megestrol acetate). When reduction of secretion of glucocorticosteroids (is shown in Itsenko's disease of Cushing, etc.), apply blockers of function of adrenal glands.
Glucocorticosteroids, in connection with their limfolitichesky action and ability to oppress a mitosis of lymphocytes, apply mainly in acute leukoses (mainly at children) and malignant lymphoma.
On the action mechanism hormonal drugs differ from cytotoxic antineoplastic drugs. Their main role - restoration of the broken humoral regulation of function of cells. At the same time, their specific influence on tumor cells is not excluded: they to some extent slow down cell fission and promote their differentiation. Estrogen stimulates education with a liver of the globulin connecting androgens and reducing concentration freely, the circulating testosterone; they oppress also 5 Aa - reductase, i.e. reduce transformation of testosterone into the dihydrotestosterone playing an important role in development of tumoral process.
Estrogen oppresses release from a front share of a hypophysis of luteinizing hormone that leads to decrease in products of androgens testicles.
An important role in the mechanism of antineoplastic effect of hormones is played by their linking with receptors, specific to them, which existence is revealed not only in normal target tissues, but also in some tumors.
Antineoplastic effect give different estrogenic, androgenic and other hormonal drugs in the corresponding hormonedependent tumors. However, for practical application in oncology a number of drugs with<выгодными> the most therapeutic and toxicological indicators is selected.