The means stimulating central nervous system can be divided into the following main groups: a) the psychogogic means having the stimulating impact on functions of a brain and activating mental and a fizicheskuyudeyatelnost of an organism. A number of derivatives of purine (caffeine, etc.), fenilalkilamina and fenilalkilsidnonimina (Phenaminum, Sydnocarbum, etc.) and other drugs which can be considered as psychomotor stimulators concerns them. In experimental conditions these drugs quickly change functional indicators of activity of a brain (activate bioelectric activity of a brain, change conditioned reflexes, etc.), increase endurance to physical activity. In the conditions of medical use they render rather quickly occurring stimulating effect; b) the analeptical means exciting first of all the centers of a medulla - vascular and respiratory. The main representatives of this group are camphor, Corazolum, Cordiaminum. From group of analeptical means allocate group of respiratory analeptics (Cytitonum, lobeline) of which the stimulating influence on a respiratory center is especially characteristic; c) the means operating premushchestvenno on a spinal cord; the main representative of this group is strychnine.
Not only drugs of the groups stated above, but also different psychotropic drugs, such as antidepressants with the accompanying stimulating component, etc. can have psychogogic effect. For actually psychogogic means the stimulating effect is the main manifestation of their action.
Recently the new group of excitants with the conditional name is offered<<актопротекторы>> (see Bemitil).
The mechanism of action of different stimulators is various. An essential role is played by their interaction with the mediator systems of a brain: stimulating (a glutamate, asparagat) and brake (GAMK, glycine) neuromediator amino acids, monoaminergichesky mediators (noraadrenalin, dopamine, etc.), linking with purine (adenosine) receptors, etc.