The drugs containing poisons of bees and snakes find application for reduction of pains and the inflammatory phenomena in polyarthritises, miozita, sciaticas and other inflammatory processes, sometimes as the desensibilizing cure for allergic diseases or "resorptional" means at cicatricial changes of fabrics, etc.
The mechanism of effect of these drugs is insufficiently studied. Partially the effect is caused by irritation of receptors and reflex reactions, but the essential value has also specific action connected with existence in poisons of bees and snakes of a number of the highly active substances (a histamine, enzymes, micro elements, organic acids, etc.) influencing regulatory processes of an organism, including immunological reactions, on microcirculation, blood clotting, etc. Existence in poisons of bees and snakes of enzymes of hyaluronidase and a phospholipase And promotes their penetration through skin at local applique.
Administration of these drugs under skin or vnutrikozhno causes local and general reaction which extent depends on a dose and individual sensitivity. Local reaction is expressed in feeling of pain, burning, hyperaemia, local temperature increase and puffiness of fabrics; the general - in an indisposition; fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, temperature increase. At hypersensitivity the hypostasis of fabrics, a small tortoiseshell, pains in heart, heartbeat, increase of pulse, a back pain, joints, a fever, spasms, an unconscious state, etc. can also develop.
At individual selection of doses taking into account sensitivity to drug the side reactions can not be observed, but if they are expressed, then it is necessary to appoint antiallergenic (antihistaminic) means or to cancel drug. For prevention of complications it is necessary to define sensitivity of the patient at introduction of small doses. It is necessary to consider that women (especially in the period of periods and pregnancy), children and elderly people have hypersensitivity to drugs of this group.
The general contraindications to use of drugs of apitoxin: individual intolerance, diseases of kidneys, liver and pancreas; new growths, tuberculosis; serious infectious diseases, sepsis and purulent (acute) processes, diseases of the haematogenic system, a circulatory unefficiency with a decompensation, mental diseases, a cachexia, diabetes, defeats of bark of adrenal glands, pregnancy.