Antifungal drugs are intended for treatment of fungus diseases — dermatomycoses, onychomycoses, a candidiasis, etc. Antifungal drugs of local action are used outwardly on the centers of defeat in a type of ointments, solutions and other dosage forms for the purpose of amotio of the affected epidermis of skin, removal of the hair and nails infected with a mushroom (for example, drugs of salicylic, milk acids, epilin, Onycholysinum, etc.), or suppression of growth of mushrooms (for example, Amicazolum, Zincundanum, Nitrofunginum, etc.). Antifungal drugs of systemic effect cause death of mushrooms or slow down their reproduction at intake (griseofulvin, nystatin, levorinum) or intravenous administration (Amphotericinum B).
There are several classifications of the medicines relating to group of antimycotics (antifungal means): on chemical structure, the action mechanism, an activity range, pharmacokinetics, shipping, features of clinical use, etc.
According to the chemical building, antifungal drugs classify as follows:
1. Half-yen antibiotics: nystatin, levorinum, natamitsin, Amphotericinum B, Mycoheptinum.
2. Imidazole derivatives: Miconazolum, ketokonazol, izokonazol, Clotrimazolum, econazol, bifonazol, oksikonazol, butokonazol.
3. Triazole derivatives: flukonazol, itrakonazol, vorikonazol.
4. Allylamines (N-methylnaphthalene derivatives): terbinafin, naftifin.
5. Ekhinokandina: kaspofungin, mikafungin, anidulafungin.
6. Drugs of other groups: griseofulvin, amorolfin, tsiklopiroks, flutsitozin.
The division of antifungal drugs on the main indications is provided to D.A. Harkevich's classifications (2006):
I. The means applied at treatment of the diseases caused by a pathogenic fungi:
1. In system or deep mycoses (a coccidioidomycosis, parakoktsidiomikoz, histoplasmosis, a cryptococcosis, a zymonematosis):
- antibiotics (Amphotericinum B, Mycoheptinum);
- imidazole derivatives (Miconazolum, ketokonazol);
- triazole derivatives (itrakonazol, flukonazol).
2. In epidermomycoses (dermatomycoses):
- antibiotics (griseofulvin);
- N-methylnaphthalene derivatives (terbinafin);
- nitrophenol derivatives (chlornitrophenol);
- iodine drugs (solution of iodine alcohol, potassium iodide).
II. The means applied at treatment of the diseases caused by opportunistic mushrooms (for example in a candidiasis):
- antibiotics (nystatin, levorinum, Amphotericinum B);
- imidazole derivatives (Miconazolum, Clotrimazolum);
- encore - quaternary ammonium salts (a dekvaliniya chloride).
In clinical practice the antifungal means divide into 3 main groups:
1. Drugs for treatment of deep (system) mycoses.
2. Drugs for treatment of epidermophitias and trichophytias.
3. Drugs for treatment of candidiases.