Diabetes is the disease of an endocrine system arising because of a lack of insulin and which is characterized by gross violation of exchange of carbohydrates and also other disbolism. Today 150 million people on the planet are sick with diabetes, Russians make 8 million of them. Insulin is necessary for maintenance of normal level of sugar in blood, it promotes intake of glucose in cells, regulates protein metabolism> stimulating protein synthesis from amino acids and their transport in cells, glucose level in blood and carries out some other functions. Thus, normal activity of an organism without enough insulin is impossible.
Now two types of diabetes are known.
Diabetes of the first type - insulin-dependent. From this form of diabetes young people aged up to 30 years generally suffer.
The second type of diabetes - insulinonezavisimy, diabetes of elderly people. At such patients insulin is produced, and, keeping to a diet, leading active lifestyle, these people can achieve that quite long time the level of sugar will meet standard, and complications safely will manage to be avoided.
At patients with diabetes of the first type the increase in sugar (glucose) in blood - a hyperglycemia is observed, glucose in urine appears (glucosuria). The main symptoms of a disease are also discharge of a large amount of urine (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), increase in appetite (polyphagia), but at the same time patients complain of weight loss and weakness. One of the reasons of weight loss is disturbance of protein metabolism. At early stages of diabetes the patients have an eczema, furuncles, periodontosis, fungus diseases develop.
Diabetes of the second type much more meets at elderly people more often. In this type of diabetes the pancreas produces not enough insulin. Besides the susceptibility of cells to insulin is reduced. At patients with diabetes of the second type the hyperglycemia, obesity, a hypertension (increase in arterial blood pressure) are observed. At such patients cardiovascular diseases (coronary heart disease, a myocardial infarction), a diabetic retinopathy (decrease in sight), neuropathy (decrease in sensitivity, dryness and peeling of integuments, pains and spasms in extremities), a nephropathy develop (discharge with protein urine, disturbance of functions of kidneys).
Treat complications of diabetes: ketoatsitoz, ketoatsidotichesky coma, gipoklemichesky states and gipoklemichesky coma, giperosmolyarny coma and also diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic osteoarthropathy, delay of physical and sexual development, infectious complications.