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Collapse


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Collapse (Latin collapsus which weakened, fell) - the acute vascular insufficiency which is characterized first of all by falling of a vascular tone and also volume of the circulating blood. At the same time inflow of blue blood to heart decreases, warm emission decreases, arterial and venous pressure falls, perfusion of fabrics and a metabolism are broken, there is a brain hypoxia, the vital functions are oppressed. To. develops as a complication mainly of a serious illness and morbid conditions. However it can arise and when there are no essential pathological deviations (for example, orthostatic K. at children) .

Collapse symptoms

The clinical picture of collapse has the features depending on its reason, but it is similar in the main manifestations at collapses of various origin. Patients complain of the arisen and quickly progressing weakness, dizziness, chill, easing of sight, sonitus, sometimes feeling of melancholy and fear. Consciousness of the patient is kept, but in most cases he is indifferent to surrounding. Skin is sharply pale, the face of earthy color, is covered with cold clammy sweat, at cardiogenic collapse the cyanosis is quite often noted. Body temperature is reduced. Shallow breathing, is speeded up.  Small pulse, soft, speeded up.

By the arterial blood pressure it is lowered: systolic — to 80 — 60, diastolic — up to 40 mm Hg. below (at persons with the previous hypertensia the picture of collapse can be observed at higher rates of the ABP). Practically in all cases the pachemia, an oliguria, quickly accruing azotemia are noted. When deepening collapse at the patient the consciousness is darkened (or progress) disturbances of a warm rhythm often join; pupils extend, reflexes disappear. If effective treatment is not carried out, there comes death.

Cardiogenic collapse is usually combined with heart arrhythmia, a fluid lungs or signs of acute right ventricular insufficiency (for example, in a thrombembolia of pulmonary arteries), proceeds hard. Orthostatic collapse arises only at vertical position of a body and is quickly stopped after transfer of the patient to a prone position.

Infectious collapse most often develops in time of critical decrease in body temperature; at the same time the humidity of skin, as a rule, of all body (the got wet linen), the profound hypotonia of muscles, pulse soft is noted.

Collapse reasons

  • acute infections (belly and sypny typhus, encephalomeningitis, pneumonia, etc.),
  • sharp blood loss,
  • diseases of endocrine and nervous system (tumors, myelosyringosis, etc.),
  • exogenous intoxications (poisonings with carbon monoxide, organophosphorous connections, etc.),
  • spinal and peridural anesthesia,
  • orthostatic redistribution of blood (overdose of some medicines — ganglioblokator, insulin, hypotensive drugs, etc.),
  • acute diseases of abdominal organs (peritonitis, etc.).

Collapse can be a complication of an acute disorder of sokratitelny function of the myocardium combined by the concept "syndrome of small warm emission" which arises in an acute period of a myocardial infarction, in pronounced tachycardia, in deep bradycardia, at dysfunctions of sinus node, etc. There are differences between the concepts "collapse" and "shock". Shock unlike collapse call reaction of an organism to superstrong, especially painful, irritation, followed by heavier disorders of the vital functions of nervous and endocrine systems, blood circulations, breath, exchange processes and often secretory function of kidneys.

Collapse treatment

Treatment has to be held urgently and intensively. Patients with the collapse which arose in extra hospital conditions have to be urgently brought in a hospital accompanied by ambulance crew (if it did not render full effective on-site assistance) or the medics owning technology of resuscitation.

In all cases of the patient stack in horizontal position with a little raised lower extremities, cover with a blanket, subcutaneously enter 2 ml of 10% of solution caffeine-sodium benzoate. At infectious collapse this therapy sometimes is sufficient, at orthostatic — is always effective, but if the ABP does not tend to increase, it is necessary, as well as at collapses of other origin, performing the etiological and more developed pathogenetic therapy. Etiological treatment assumes a bleeding stop at hemorrhagic collapse, removal of toxic substances from an organism and specific antidotal therapy in poisonings, thrombolytic therapy In an acute myocardial infarction and in a thrombembolia of pulmonary arteries, stopping of a paroxysm of a ciliary aritmiiila of other disturbances of a heart rhythm, etc.

Pathogenetic therapy includes intravenous administration of blood at hemorrhagic collapse, plasma and blood-substituting liquids — in a pachemia at patients with toxic, infectious and any hypovolemic collapse, administration of hypertonic salt solution of sodium chloride at collapse against the background of pernicious vomiting and a diarrhea and also at patients with adrenal insufficiency, along with administration of hormones of adrenal glands. If necessary it is urgent to raise the ABP intravenously by drop infusion enter noradrenaline or angiotensin; slower, but also more long effect injections of a phenylephine hydrochloride , Phethanolum give. In all cases the oxygen therapy is shown.

The drugs used at treatment of this disease:

Adrenalinum
Anabasine hydrochloride (Anabasinum hydrochloridum)
Angiotensinamidum
Bemegridum
Berodual
Halazolinum
Hexoprenaline
Dobutaminum
Dopamine (Dophaminum, Dofaminum)
Dephedrinum
Isadrinum
Camphora
Carbogenum
Oxygenum
Corazolum
Cordiaminum
Coffeinum
Lobelinum
Mesatonum
Naphthyzinum
Noradrenaline hydrotartrate (Noradrenalini hydrotartras)
Ortsiprenalina sulfate (Orciprenalini sulfas)
Salbutamolum
Strophanthin to (Strophanthinus K)
Sulfocamphocainum
Terbutalin
Fenoterolum
Phethanolum
Cytisinum
Ephedrinum
Mateus Dauã: Sou professor de uma escola pública de ensino fundamental no Rio Grande do Sul e hoje utilizamos esse vídeo para falar sobre sustentabilidade. Na minha área, matemática, imaginamos toda a água do mundo como 2 litros e pegamos 50ml para representar a água doce que tratamos para beber. Os alunos ficaram impressionados e adoraram!

Luis Felipe Figueira: Mas se as árvores existem pela chuva, como poderia o desmatamento afetar a chuva? Hoje 3 anos dps da falta d agua brasileira, podemos ver o quao inútil foi tudo isso ....

paulo radeck: água acabar é discurso de políticamente correto o que existe é grandes centros e mau uso mas é fisicamente impossível acabar a água.

Allan Lopes: A agropecuária consome 70% da água potável, as indústrias 22%, 8% da água é utilizada em uso doméstico. teve um canal de televisão fazendo campanha contra a falta d'água colocando um monte de artistas, mas eles não reclamam com quem realmente consome mais água. eu faço minha parte, agora eu quero ver as indústrias fazendo a parte dela.

Marcos Fera: Seres humanos são destrutiveis ao mesmo tempo que são inteligentes, calma, sempre vamos encontrar soluções para falta de água !

Bazilio Vieira: um dia, eu estava na Barra Funda ( de carro ) e começou a chover. Em menos de 3 minutos, eram bilhões de litros de água inundando a rua. água potável ( quando cai no telhado ). NA AMAZÔNIA, EM 1 M² DE TELHADO CAI MAIS DE 1500 L DE ÁGUA POR ANO, ISSO NOS ANOS QUE MENOS CHOVEM. Tem lugar que chove pouco mas existem aquíferos perpétuos em todo mundo. NUNCA EXISTIU FALTA DE ÁGUA. ISSO É SÓ O MITO QUE OS GOVERNOS CRIARAM PRA COBRAR POR ALGO EXISTENCIAL A NOSSA VIDA. SE ELES PUDESSEM, COBRARIAM ATÉ PELO AR.

Bazilio Vieira: um dos maiores mitos da humanidade é a " falta de água ". O nosso planeta é coberto por 3/4 por oceanos. água. Como se diz, pra fornecer água potável, se precisa ( ou não ). Em algumas regiões, pode se ter menos acesso a água mas isso tem solução ( saia dai e vá ´pra onde tem água. ). Se houvesse falta de água, todo mundo seria obrigado a armazenar a água grátis e potável que cai em todo mundo. Mas o Estado faz isso: capta água da chuva e armazena em reservatórios imundos que pra conseguir usa-la se precisa desses processos caríssimos. no planeta água nunca houve e nunca haverá fala de água.

Marcos Oliveira: Como um bando de idiota por aí falando coisas sem dados. Vamos a fatos 70% da crosta terrestre é composta de água salgada os inúmeros processos de dessalinização são conhecidos a decádas/séculos, qualquer navio de grande porte (tipo transatlântico ou cargueiro) não navega com grandes quantidades de água potável mas dessaliniza água do mar, em Asquelon (Israel) 1 m^3 de água dessalinizada (ou seja, 1.000 litros) custa a "enorme" bagatela de 1 US$. Sobre transporte e abastecimento se pensarmos que o petróleo é transportado por oleodutos passando por regiões extremas do mundo como Sibéria para abastecer mercados europeus e sim conseguimos esse feito, além disso há o fato do petróleo ser bem mais viscoso que a água (em outras palavras muito mais difícil de bombear). Logo, é fácil concluir que se há é haverá sede no mundo não será por fatores climáticos mais sim econômicos. A região mais carente de água no Brasil é uma das mais pobres. Isso de falta d'água é uma reinvenção da teoria Malthusiana, muita besteira. Como na questão comida ( produzimos mais comida do que seria possivel todos nós comermos) não é a fome que causa pobreza, mas a pobreza que causa a fome e a sede.


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