is the severe headaches (H) most often localized in one half of the head, which sometimes are followed by the nausea and vomiting aggravated by sensitivity to light and sounds. At the same time head injuries, a stroke, brain tumors are not diagnosed for the patient. The headache in migraine is not connected with fluctuations of arterial blood pressure, an attack of glaucoma or the increased intracranial pressure. Migraine belongs to headaches of vascular type. Expansion of walls of the blood vessels feeding a brain because of what they begin to press on the neurons surrounding them is the cornerstone of its emergence.
Prevalence of migraine – 5 – 25%. More often women of young age – the beginning of a disease up to 20 years, peak in 25 – 35 years are ill.
Migraine – the caused disease is hereditary. If both parents have migraine, at the child the chance to ache increases to 60 – 90% if only mom – 70%, only the father – 20%. Thus, it is clear that migraine is transmitted on the mother's side.
Types of migraine
In 10-15% of cases the attack of the headaches (H) is preceded by migrenozny aura - a complex of the neurologic symptoms arising just before the beginning migrenozny H or in her debut. On this sign distinguish migraine without aura (earlier - "simple") and migraine with aura (earlier - "associated"). It is not necessary to confuse aura with prodromal symptoms. The aura develops within 5-20 minutes, no more than 60 minutes remain and from the beginning of a painful phase completely disappears. Most of patients never have migraine attacks without aura and or very seldom test migrenozny aura. At the same time the patients having migraine with aura quite often can have attacks without aura. In rare instances after aura the migrenozny attack does not arise (so-called aura without headache).
Most often the aura which is shown various visual phenomena meets visual, or "classical": photopsias, front sights, unilateral loss of a field of vision, flickering scotoma or the zigzag shining line ("a fortification range"). Can be noted less often: unilateral weakness or paresthesias in extremities (gemiparestetichesky aura), passing speech disorders, distortion of perception of the sizes and forms of objects (a syndrome "Alice in Wonderland").
At 15-20% of patients with typical incidental migraine at the beginning of a disease over the years the frequency of attacks increases, up to daily GB which nature gradually changes: pains become less strong, gain constant character, can lose some typical symptoms of migraine. Such version GB answering to criteria of migraine without aura, but arising more than 15 times a month for more than 3 months received the name
of chronic migraine
. It is shown that two major factors play a role in transformation of incidental migraine in a chronic form: abuse of the anesthetizing medicines (so-called "medicinal abuzus") and the depression arising, as a rule, against the background of the chronic psychoinjuring situation.
At women the migraine has close connection with sex hormones. So, the periods are a provocative factor of an attack more than at 35% of women, and menstrual migraine in which attacks arise within 48 hours from the beginning of periods occurs in 5-12% of patients. At 2/3 women after some increase of attacks in the first trimester of pregnancy in II and III trimesters the considerable simplification of GB up to total disappearance of the migrenozny attacks is noted. Against the background of reception of hormonal contraceptives and replacement hormonal therapy of 60-80% of patients note heavier course of migraine.
Main symptoms of migraine: paroxysmal, pulsing, average intensity or severe pain in half of the head which lasts from 4 to 72 hours. This pain amplifies at physical activity, a ducking, is followed by nausea, vomiting. Bright light, a sharp sound, a strong smell strengthen pain. There is a wish to clasp the head with hands and to hide to the quiet, dark place. Patients often tie up the head a towel, cover the sick party and an eye. If to you tested such condition of at least 5 times – you have a migraine. Sometimes there is bilateral migraine.
The aura can precede an attack of migraine (approximately in 20% of cases). The aura is neurologic symptoms – visual, acoustical, sensitive, motive, aphotic, vestibular, preceding an attack. The aura within 5 – 20 minutes develops and no more than an hour proceeds. More often there is a visual aura – the person sees flashing of bright flashes (photopsia) in the right or left field of vision, a lightning, snakes, losses of a field of vision or its fragments with distortion of objects.
Numbness of extremities is possible (right, left, only hands). There is a hemiplegic aura at which the right or left extremities do not move. The basilar form of migraine with aura is characterized by sonitus, dizziness, paresthesias in extremities, photopsias in binazalny or in bitemporal fields of vision, sometimes there are faints. At a vegetative form there is panic, fear, heartbeat, a shiver, rapid breathing, weakness, a polyuria.
All symptoms of aura are completely reversible.
The Migrenozny status – a heavy complication of migraine. It is a series heavy, with repeated vomiting, the following one for one attacks of migraine. Intervals between attacks no more than 4 hours. Such state needs hospital treatment.
Causes of migraine
Many factors can become the cause of migraine. Carry to them:
some food, for example, nuts, chocolate, bananas, fish, cheese;
overeating or starvation;
excessively long or too short dream;
alcohol abuse, stresses and depressions;
menstrual cycle, pregnancy, climax.
If the person replaced climatic conditions, moved to other country – it also badly affects state of his health.
Treatment of migraine
People with accidental or moderate headaches which do not stir daily activity, as a rule, treat themselves sold without prescription (not registered by the doctor) sedatives (analgetics). Many nonprescription analgetics are quite available. Nonprescription analgetics as it was told, are safe and effective for the short-term help in a headache (and also muscular pain, pain at spasms during a menstrual cycle and fever) when it is used according to instructions on their label.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NPVP) – group of the analgetics sold without prescription. Some NPVP can be accepted only according to the prescription. According to the prescription of NPVS, as a rule, are ordered for treatment of arthritis and other inflammatory states, such as bursitis, tendinitis, etc. The volume of the active ingredient which is contained in each tablet can be difference between nonprescription analgetics and the ordered NPVP.
NPVS relieve pain by reduction of inflammation which leads to pain (they are called still, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NPVP because they differ from corticosteroids, such as Prednisonum which also reduce inflammation). Corticosteroids, though are effective in inflammation reduction, but have predictable and potentially serious side effects, especially when are used dolgosrochno. NPVP have no same side effects which have corticosteroids.
Aspirin – the most known NPVP, differs in the impact on thrombocytes. Thrombocytes are small particles in blood which cause formation of blood clots. Aspirin prevents forming of blood clots thrombocytes. Thus, aspirin can increase bleeding by prevention of blood coagulation though it can be also used in the therapeutic purposes of prevention of formation of clots (as prevention of heart attacks and strokes). The NPVP group, belonging to not aspirin also has anti-trombotsitnye consequences, but their action on thrombocytes not such long, as at aspirin.
Search of effective analgetics or combinations of analgetics often represents process of tests and mistakes because people differently react to various analgetics. Generally, the person has to use analgetic which helped it with the past. It will increase the probability that soothing will be effective and will reduce risk of side effects.
Treatment of migraine folk remedies
At an attack of migraine to use soothing and sleeping medicines. It is possible to take hot foot baths, sometimes to put hot compresses on the head, to apply hard tightening of the head, hot drink.
If during a migraine attack one half of the head reddens, then on this party it is necessary to put a cold lotion, and to lower legs in hot water. If a sick part of the head turned white (i.e. blood cast), then on it it is necessary to put hot lotions. If the difference in coloring of the head is not noted, then it is possible to tie all head with a hot towel, taking whisky, and on whisky to put on a slice of a fresh lemon.
To carry out massage of the head, beginning from a forehead and moving ahead both hands to a nape.
To mix equal parts of camphoric alcohol both nashatyrny, and to inhale this mix.
It is useful to put the rag moistened with juice of red beet or onions in an ear.
To put for ears and on whisky sourcrout in a rag. The head it is necessary to tie with a towel.
To make mix of equal parts of lavrovishnevy, laurel, lavrokamfarny, eucalyptus leaves and Myrrha's leaves, to mix and to sew up densely, like a small pillow. In a headache to lay down on this pillow, having nestled the sick site for 2-3 hours.
To apply not too hot foot baths or manual and also an alternating douche.
In migraine compresses with crude onions on a forehead are useful. In old times advised at attacks of migraine to put the tampon moistened with onions juice in an ear.
Prevention of migraine
The first rule of prevention of migraine consists in the aspiration to avoid the provocative factors characteristic of each person. Of course, initially each person having migraine has to define for himself individual factors. For this purpose recommend to keep a diary in which it is necessary to specify after what events migraine attacks were observed. It is so possible to establish individual provocative factors of migraine.
The second rule of prevention of migraine is a maintaining a healthy lifestyle, the balanced and timely food, moderate physical activity.
Diet in migraine
At tendency to migraines try to eat regularly. Big breaks between meals can cause an attack, besides they quite often lead to constipations which can become the provoker of migraine too. Be not fond of monodiets and starvation - it breaks a metabolism. In migraines the balanced diet is much more important.
In 6 hours of a hunger strike the sugar level in blood sharply falls and vessels are narrowed. It can become the powerful factor causing migraine. And monodiets usually are followed by deficiency of iron and vitamins of group B which also increases risk of developing of a headache. For this reason women during critical days need to eat more products containing iron: apples, garnets, buckwheat, berries.
Leads to a vitamin deficiency of group B also reception of contraceptive tablets and also constant consumption of coffee and alcoholic beverages. Have it in mind and regulate the diet so that to compensate the shortage of the called vitamins. It is useful to eat wholegrain grain, bran, a liver and also green peas, spinach and broccoli.
Limit products - provokers of migraine: cocoa, chocolate, oranges and other orange fruit (pay attention after what fruit you begin an attack). Milk, cheese can cause an attack (especially in combination with red dry wine). At some migraine develops after consumption of raw smoked sausages, fat meat, eggs. Quite often people complain of soy sauce, bean, sardines, and still tomatoes, a celery.
Even usual substitute of sugar can be the enemy. Be careful with fruit drinks, chewing gum and low-calorie types of ice cream and desserts.
From alcoholic beverages beer and champagne especially adversely work. If you decided to raise a glass on a holiday, then give preference to cognac, vodka or whisky.
At tendency to migraines regularly drink the water mixed with raspberry or lemon juice. Also the sokoterapiya by carrots juice mix (3 parts), dandelion juice (1 part) and spinach juice (1 part) is recommended in treatment of migraines. Drink this mix of juice on a half-glass of 1 - 2 time a day to food. For juice it is possible to use also single vegetables, for example, svezheotzhaty juice of a cucumber or the same carrots, spinach.
Migraine at children
More often children have a simple form of migraine. The headache unlike a classical form of a disease is not localized at the left or on the right, and felt in a forehead, can be followed by nausea and vomiting. The so-called complicated migraine belongs to rare. Its most known forms - ophthalmoplegic of which development of oculomotor disturbances (omission of a century, restriction of movements of an eyeball), and hemiplegic is characteristic: it is accompanied by weakness of muscles of the right or left extremities. Asking for medical care, some parents believe that the doctor will quickly find the cause of a headache, will register tablets, will recommend some changes of lifestyle, a diet. It will be necessary only to implement these recommendations, and the headache as did not happen.
Unfortunately, so simple solutions of the problem of treatment of migraine at children do not exist. Parents should know: at the child having migraine especially sensitive type of nervous system which reacts to different irritants pain on the course of vessels of a brain and scalp. Therefore it is very important to reveal as much as possible by means of the doctor all factors provoking attacks and whenever possible to exclude them from life of children. It is not recommended to give them the products causing migraine attacks. These are, first of all, aged cheeses, sausages, sourcrout, beef-infusion broth, chocolate, a citrus. Of course, for one child this list not full, and for another the products recognized harmful are absolutely harmless. Here knowledge of the doctor and observation of mothers and grandmothers have to work. Without exception the starvation is capable to cause a migraine attack in all children therefore it is necessary to adhere to a diet strictly.
Do not forget: in everything it is necessary to know when to stop! It is important to child to avoid intellectual and physical overworks, hard work in hot weather. It is necessary to remember also sensitivity of many to smells, including a smell of cigarettes, vapors of gasoline and paints, spirits, cologne, the aromatic substances added to shampoos.
Whether it is possible to interrupt a migraine attack? Yes, if at its beginning to give to the child aspirin or paracetamol. However, these drugs not always help children of advanced age. Then the doctor appoints the drugs containing ergotamine. But what tablets to drink, only the expert solves. Never self-medicate the children!
If attacks of migraine arise often (more than 2 times a month), the doctor can conduct a course of preventive treatment. It can be the aspirin appointed to long term. At insufficient effect the therapy amplifies beta blockers (anaprilin) or Triptizolum (amitriptyline). As a rule, for the period of vacation when the frequency of attacks at most of school students is sharply reduced, in treatment a break is taken.