The married couple is considered sterile if pregnancy at the woman does not occur within a year of regular sex life (sexual contacts at least 1 time a week) without use of means and methods of contraception. According to data of World Health Organization<:около 8 % супружеских пар в течение репродуктивного периода жизни сталкиваются с проблемой бесплодия>.
At the person distinguish the absolute infertility predetermined by incurable changes in the sexual device of the man or the woman (defects of development, operational, removal of gonads, injuries and in), and relative which causes can be removed. Infertility is called primary if pregnancy never was, and secondary if earlier the woman was a pregnant woman.
Can be the causes of female infertility:
1) Pathology or lack of ovaries - bodies where ova ripen and is developed hormone oestradiol. Exhaustion of ovaries, a syndrome of polycystic ovaries, follicular or endometrioid cysts of ovaries and so forth can be carried to pathologies of ovaries.
2) Impassability or lack of fallopian pipes - bodies on which spermatozoa to an ovum in which there is a fertilization move and on which the embryo moves towards a uterus. The impassability of a fallopian pipe can be inborn or can be caused by inflammatory processes (salpingitis), surgical intervention (for example, elimination of extrauterine tube pregnancy) and so forth.
3) Pathology or lack of a uterus - body in which there is an incubation of a fruit. It is possible to carry a hysteromyoma, an endometritis, endometriosis (though it can be considered as a general disease) to the most widespread pathologies of a uterus and so forth.
4) Hormonal disturbances - can be a consequence of pathology of ovaries, or a consequence of pathology of a hypothalamus and/or a hypophysis, or a consequence of disturbance of other endocrine organs (adrenal glands, a thyroid gland), also a consequence of disturbance of exchange processes, a mental stress and so forth.
5) Immune infertility - is connected with presence at the woman of immune responses against spermatozoa (existence of so-called antispermalny antibodies), or immune responses against an embryo.
6) Chromosomal disturbances in ova - lead to emergence of impractical embryos which perish within the first week of development before implantation. In this case the woman does not manage to notice the interrupted pregnancy.
Sperm pathology is the reason of male infertility. Including:
1) Aneyakulyation - lack of an ejaculate (sperm). Including a retrograde ejaculation - ejaculation in a bladder.
2) An oligospermatism - insufficient amount (volume) of sperm. On norms of WHO the volume has to be not less than 2 ml.
3) An azoospermism - lack of spermatozoa in an ejaculate. Distinguish a secretory azoospermism when spermatozoa in testicles are not formed, and an obstructive azoospermism when spermatozoa are formed, but are not thrown up owing to impassability of seminiferous ways.
4) An oligozoospermia - insufficient quantity of spermatozoa in sperm. On norms of WHO the concentration of spermatozoa in sperm has to be not less than 20 million/ml.
5) Astenozoospermiya - insufficient mobility of spermatozoa. On norms of WHO the share of active and mobile spermatozoa in sperm has to be not less than 25%.
6) A teratozoospermia - the increased quantity of abnormal spermatozoa. On norms of WHO the share of morphologically normal spermatozoa in sperm has to be not less than 30% at vital microscopic examination, or not less than 15% at microscopic examination of the painted sperm smear.
7) Existence of antispermalny antibodies in sperm.