Sleeping medicines — group of the psychoactive medicines used for simplification of approach of a dream and ensuring its sufficient duration and also at carrying out anesthesia. Now classification of automatic telephone exchange does not allocate such separate pharmacological group.
On chemical structure among sleeping medicines distinguish derivatives of a benzodiazenin (nitrazepam, flunitrazepam, flurazepam); barbiturates, i.e. derivatives of barbituric acid (barbital-sodium, phenobarbital), derivatives of other heterocyclic compounds (glyutetimid, methaqualone); connections of an aliphatic row (bromisoval, Chlorali hydras). As sleeping medicines use also drugs from other groups of medicines which along with the main properties possess somnolent action, for example sodium anesthetic the hydroxybutyrate, some antihistamines blocking H1 receptors (Dimedrol, isopromethazine, Suprastinum, etc.).
Use of sleeping medicines
Modern requirements to safe and effective drugs put the following properties of sleeping medicines in the forefront:
- forming of a normal physiological dream;
- safety for different groups of people, lack of disturbances of memory and other side effects;
- lack of accustoming, psychological dependence.
As "ideal" drugs are still not found, use of some "traditional" hypnotic drugs, including a number of barbiturates (the derivatives of barbituric acid, connections which are formed at condensation of the substituted ethers of malonic acid and urea) continues. If at condensation instead of urea to take thiourea, then we will receive thiobarbiturates. Phenobarbital belongs to the most known barbiturates, then amobarbitat also thiopental, or pentothal (thiobarbiturate) applied intravenously to anesthesia.
Modern sleeping medicines of a benzodiazepine row (nitrazepam, etc.) have some advantages in comparison with barbiturates. However and on side effects they not quite meet for the nature of the caused dream the physiological requirements.
Recently are excluded from the nomenclature of medicines karbomat, barbamyl, cyclobarbital, barbital, barbital-sodium, etaminal-sodium, ceased to appoint as sleeping medicine Chlorali hydras and chlorobutanolgidrat.
Side effect of sleeping medicines
For the first time the special attention to side effects of hypnotic drugs was caused by thalidomide (kontergan), notorious teratogenic (causing uglinesses in newborns) action. In the early seventies in Western Europe at mothers using this substance during pregnancy as sleeping pill children generally with the deformed extremities were born.