Psychosis (other - Greek ψύχωσις — mental derangement; from ψυχή — soul, mind, and-ωσις — the broken state) — disturbance of any adaptation of mental human activity. Psychotic disorder is a collective name of group of the diverse mental disorders which are followed by productive psychopathological symptomatology — nonsense, hallucinations, pseudohallucinations, depersonalization, derealizatsiy.
Psychoses are expressed forms of mental disorders at which mental activity of the patient differs in sharp discrepancy of surrounding reality, reflection of the real world is roughly distorted that is shown in behavior disorders and manifestation in psychosis unusual for it it is normal of pathological symptoms and syndromes (disorders of perception, memory, thinking, affectivity and another). Psychosis does not generate the new phenomena, and represents result of loss of activity of the highest levels.
- affective (depressive, maniacal, manic-depressive);
- schizoaffective, etc.
Regardless of the reason of origin of disorder all symptoms of psychosis are similar among themselves. In most cases sincerely upset person can be distinguished from normal easily. The behavior of the person forces to attract attention – he can make the unpredictable acts which are not giving in to any independent explanation, movements of the person become unnatural, often uncontrollable the patient.
Reexcitement of the person at commission of some certain action or inaction (symptoms of maniacal psychosis), the differences of mood characterized by duration of stay in any given state (depressive psychosis).
The speech also, can tell much about a condition of the insane – his phrases are incoherent and do not make sense, he raves, talks to invisible people (hallucinogenic, crazy, acute psychosis). On questions gives incoherent answers, speaks often from the third party or addresses himself (schizophrenia). The address to nonexistent people is caused because of images which the person has during psychosis.
Hallucinations can also be carried to psychosis symptoms. They can force upset to behave inadequately and to provoke so-called depersonalization of the personality. The person ceases to identify himself as the personality, it can be provided by a tree or a cat. And can begin to convince people around that he is the risen Winston Churchill.
Causes of psychosis
Psychosis can arise for many reasons of various character. It is accepted to subdivide the causes of psychosis into internal and external. At influence of external factors the exogenous psychosis develops. Treat external causes of psychosis: various infections (syphilis, tuberculosis, flu, typhus and so on), alcohol, narcotic substances, industrial poisons and also stress or severe psychoinjury. Among external causes of developing of psychoses first place is won by alcohol, abusing which it is possible to get alcoholic psychosis.
If the cause of psychosis is in the person, then endogenous psychosis develops. In most cases disturbances of nervous system and endocrine balance can be a root of such psychosis. Endogenous psychoses are connected with age changes in an organism (hydrocianic or senile psychosis), they can be a consequence of a hypertension, atherosclerosis of vessels of a brain and also schizophrenia. The course of endogenous psychosis differs in duration and tendency to a recurrence. Psychosis is a difficult state and sometimes happens it is impossible to establish what caused its emergence, internal or external causes. External influence can be the first push, later which the internal problem joined.
In special group allocate senile psychoses. They arise usually after 60 years and are shown by various endomorphic disturbances and conditions of stupefaction. In senile psychosis the total weak-mindedness does not develop.
On features of a course and emergence allocate reactive and acute psychoses. Reactive psychoses belong to temporary reversible mental disorders which arise under the influence of any mental trauma. Acute psychosis arises suddenly and very quickly develops, for example, at unexpected news of loss of the native person, loss of property and so on.
Diagnosis of psychosis
The diagnosis of psychosis is based on features of a clinical picture and characteristic dynamics of a mental disorder. Many symptoms of psychosis can arise in the facilitated form long before the disease and serves thus as very important harbingers. It is extremely difficult to distinguish the very first symptoms of psychosis.
Distinguish from the early symptoms characteristic of psychosis:
- Changes in character: irritability, concern, nervousness, anger, hypersensitivity, sleep disorders, lack of appetite, sudden lack of interest, lack of initiative, strange and unusual look.
- Changes in working capacity: a sharp slowdown of activity, the lowered resistance to stress, disturbance of attention, sudden recession of activity.
- Change of feelings: various fears, depression, mood swings.
- Change in public life: isolation, withdrawal, mistrust, problems in communication with people, the termination of contacts.
- Change of interests: sudden manifestation of interests in very unusual things (deepening in religion, interest in magic and so on).
- Experiences and changes of perception: color or a sound can be perceived sick strongly or in a wrong way), there can be a feeling that everything changed around and also feeling of shadowing.
Treatment of psychosis
Around the world drug treatment of psychoses which cornerstone the individual approach to each patient taking into account age, sex, presence of burdeness other diseases is is considered the most effective and reliable method of therapy. One of the main tasks is establishment of effective cooperation with the patient. It is necessary to inspire in the patient belief in a possibility of recovery, to overcome his beliefs against the "harm" done by psychotropic drugs. The relations of the doctor and the patient have to be under construction on mutual trust that is guaranteed by observance by the expert of the principles of nondisclosure of information and anonymity of treatment. The patient, in turn, should not hide from the doctor such data as the fact of the use of drugs or alcohol, intake of drug used in the general medicine. It is important that administration of drugs was combined with programs of social rehabilitation and, if necessary, with family psychotherapeutic and psychopedagogical work. Social rehabilitation represents a complex of programs of training of patients with mental disturbances to ways of rational behavior, both in the conditions of clinic, and in life. Rehabilitation is directed to training social to skills of interaction with other people, to the skills necessary in everyday life, such as accounting of own finance, house cleaning, shopping, use of public transport, etc. Will also quite often apply auxiliary psychotherapy to assistance to mental patients. The psychotherapy helps to concern better itself, especially to those people who have feeling of own inferiority owing to the disease and that who aims to deny presence of a disease. An important element of social rehabilitation is participation in work of groups of mutual support together with other people who understand what means to be mentally sick person. All these methods at reasonable use can increase efficiency of medicinal therapy of psychoses.