Hepatitis - an inflammatory disease of a liver which can proceed sharply or chronically.
Classification of hepatitis
Classification of hepatitis is made as a virus, to depth of defeat and other signs. Allocate a viral hepatitis of A, B, C, D, E, F. The disease can sharply proceed or pass into a chronic form. Damage of a liver at the same time is focal or diffusion. The severity of a disease is distinguished easy, medium-weight and heavy. In development of a disease allocate incubatory, preicteric, icteric, post-icteric and the period of recovery.
This disease is usually shown by the symptoms characteristic of flu: fatigue, a headache, loss of appetite, nausea or vomiting, temperature increase to 38.8 C. At aggravation of symptoms there can be jaundice (skin and also whites of the eyes become a yellow shade), urine of brown color, colourless kcal, pain and a sdavlennost under edges on the right. But sometimes there are cases when the disease proceeds asymptomatically.
It is recommended to see a doctor at any suspicion of infection with hepatitis. As a rule, in a viral hepatitis the immediate hospitalization is required.
Acute hepatitis. Viruses (for example, viruses of hepatitis A, B, hepatitis "And, In"), activators inf are the reasons of an acute hepatitis. diseases (leptospirosis, salmonellosis, typhoid, malaria, brucellosis, etc.), chemicals (trinitrotoluene, tetrachloride carbon, etc.), insecticides and metals (lead, phosphorus, arsenic, beryllium, compounds of mercury), medicines (some psychotropic drugs, antibiotics, streptocides, etc.), poisons of plant origin, for example, poisons of mushrooms.
Course of an acute hepatitis, as a rule, cyclic. The disease lasts from several weeks to several months. The clinical picture of an acute hepatitis is often characterized by such symptoms as fever, pains in right hypochondrium, dyspepsia, jaundice, increase in the sizes of a liver, in some cases spleens. In cases of a heavy course the acute hepatitis can be complicated by hypostases, ascites, hemorrhages, a gepatorenalny syndrome, in the acute hepatitis caused by chemicals and poisons (for example, poisons of mushrooms), neurologic disorders are quite often observed.
In clinical practice allocate acute alcoholic hepatitis which is shown by a general malaise, weakness, fervescence, an abdominal pain, dyspepsia, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, feeling of bitterness in a mouth. This form of hepatitis can hard proceed. Are noted jaundice, symptoms of a liver failure, the liver is increased and painful, the spleen can be increased; in blood - a leukocytosis, a hyperbilirubinemia, a cholesterinemia, increase in content of alkaline phosphatase. In certain cases the disease proceeds asymptomatically, jaundice at the same time is absent. Acute alcoholic hepatitis can be combined with a fat hepatosis, chronic alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, t e. with disorders which are also caused by effect of alcohol. The disease can sometimes proceed with a cholestatic syndrome of which are characteristic an itching of skin and also increase in activity of alkaline phosphatase and content of cholesterol and phospholipids in blood.
Chronic hepatitis. If pathological process in a liver continues without improvement not less than 6 months, the disease is qualified as chronic hepatitis. Allocate chronic persistent (low-active, benign), chronic active and chronic cholestatic hepatitis.
In chronic persistent hepatitis in some cases the loss of appetite, the dispeptic phenomena, feeling of weight and pressure in the field of the right hypochondrium are noted. The main objective symptom is increase in the sizes of a liver and its moderate consolidation. As a rule, indicators of functional trials of a liver are changed: are observed slight increase of activity of alaninaminotranspherase in blood, the low hyperbilirubinemia caused generally by increase in maintenance of the related fraction of a pigment; insignificant decrease in content of albumine and increase at - globulin in blood is more rare.
In chronic active hepatitis the weakness, fast fatigue, intolerance of some foodstuff are noted (for example, fats), the dispeptic phenomena, nasal bleedings, jaundice, fervescence, sometimes an itching of skin, can arise vascular asterisks on skin, the erythema is characteristic. The liver and a spleen are increased. A special clinical form of chronic active hepatitis is the lupoid hepatitis differing in a malignant course, the profound immune and autoimmune disorders. Various nonspecific manifestations are characteristic of a disease: fever, furunculosis, lymphadenopathies, arthralgia, vasculitis, serosites, abdominal pain, glomerulonephritis and also various hormonal deviations.
Chronic cholestatic hepatitis characterize I by jaundice (at a half of patients the bright jaundice is noted) and a painful itching of skin which often precedes jaundice; on skin the generalized hyperpegmentation and ksantelazma - soft knotty formations are noted.
Treatment of hepatitis
Antiviral treatment to the patient is appointed only when the virus is in an active state: in a phase of replication (reproduction). To learn in what state there is a virus special methods of serological and molecular diagnostics are developed.
The main drug for treatment of chronic hepatitis is interferon alpha (IF-alpha). More effective, than mono therapy the IF-alpha is recognized its combination with drug ribavirin.
Today there is no drug which can destroy hepatitis C virus. A main objective of treatment is suppression of replication (reproduction) of a virus and reduction of inflammatory activity in hepatic fabric, therefore, control of progressing of a disease.
The patient with chronic hepatitis can lead very long normal life, practically till an old age if the virus is in an inactive state.
It is necessary to keep to a special diet in hepatitis, completely excepting beer and alcoholic drinks, marinades, fried, canned food, smoked products, chocolate. The milk and vegetable diet, low-fat grades of meat and fish is recommended.
2-3 times a week are recommended to do warm enemas with camomile infusion (2 tablespoons of flowers of a camomile on a glass of boiled water, to draw day). Enemas clean intestines from toxins, improve health.
Folk remedies for treatment of inflammation of a liver
1. In pains it is necessary to put to the right hypochondrium, to the place of a liver, warm poultices, the best — from boiled in a peel and the mashed potato. Or to put dry cups on this place.
2. To drink every day on a cup of juice of red beet and radish (in half).
3. To drink cabbage juice (fermented or salty) daily within 1.5 months.
4. Infusion of fruits of fennel garden. To draw one tablespoon of the crushed fruits in 1.5 glasses of boiled water (daily dose).
5. Pulp of fruits and juice of pumpkin. A daily dose — 0.5 kg of grated pulp of crude pumpkin or 0.5 glasses of juice from pulp.
6. Infusion of corn snouts. Corn stigmas are made and drunk as tea. Treatment time — half a year. Corncobs have to be ripe.
7. Infusion of flowers of a calendula medicinal. To make two teaspoons of flowers 2 glasses of boiled water, to insist 1 hour, to filter. To drink 1/2 glasses 4 times a day. Possesses bile-expelling action.
8. Chicory broth. The regular use of any part of chicory with honey and vinegar is fine means for treatment of diseases of a liver. 2 dining rooms a lozhkitsikoriya to make 500 ml of boiled water, to put in broth 2 tablespoons of honey and 1 teaspoon of fruit, wine vinegar or lemon juice. Broth take hot without restriction.
9. Dandelion root broth. To fill in one spoon of a pounded root with 1 glass of cold water (boiled). To put on small fire and to soar the whole hour. To take on 1 tablespoon 3 times a day for half an hour to food.
10. Infusion of a grass of wild strawberry, "strawberry tea". The grass collected during blossoming together with a root is dried up in the dark room. Take two bushes and make in a teapot, soar half an hour and drink as tea with sugar and milk in the morning and in the evening. Treats slowly but surely.
11. Infusion of flowers of an immortelle. To drink 2 — 3 cups a day. The immortelle malotoksichen, but at prolonged use can cause developments of stagnation in a liver.
12. Infusion of a root of an inula high. To fill in one teaspoon of a grass with a glass of boiled water, to insist 10 hours, to filter. To drink 1/4 glasses 4 times a day for half an hour to food as bile-expelling means.
13. Broth of a grass of the St. John's wort which is made a hole. To fill in one tablespoon of a grass with a glass of boiled water, to boil 15 minutes, to filter. To drink 1/4 glasses 3 times a day. Bile-expelling and anti-inflammatory drug.
14. At inflammation of a liver to take 25 g of a golden immortelle and 25 g a bogbean on 2 l of cold boiled water, to soar up to 1 l and to accept 50 ml 3 times a day for an hour to food. Course of treatment 1 month.
15. Hips — 3 parts, corn stigmas — 3 parts, sprouts of a horsetail field — 3 parts, flowers of an immortelle sandy — 4 parts, rose-petals white — 2 parts, fruits of wild strawberry — 2 parts, flowers of a camomile pharmaceutical — 2 parts, a leaf of a silver birch — 1 part, fruits of a juniper ordinary — 1 part, a grass sushenitsylesny — 1 part, an underground part of a calendula medicinal — 1 part.
One tablespoon of the mix (crushed) to make 0.5 l of boiled water, to weary 30 minutes, to filter. To drink 150 ml 3 times a day in 10 — 15 minutes prior to food. It is applied in diseases of a liver, gall bladder.
16. Infusion of a grass of a St. John's wort ordinary. One tablespoon of a grass to fill in 1.5 glasses of boiled water. To drink 1/3 glasses 3 times a day in 30 minutes prior to food.
17. In chronic hepatitis the good results are yielded by mix a plaunka pedicellate with a patrinia. To mix 100 g of roots of a patrinia and 100 g of a grass a plaunka. To make one tablespoon of mix 1 glass of boiled water, to sweeten and, having insisted, to drink in a warm look in 30 minutes prior to food and after it every 1.5 — 2 hour. Means is very effective, especially in a liver disease at children.
18. Rhizomes of a wheat grass creeping — 20 g, nettle leaves — 10 g, hips — 20 g. To make one tablespoon of mix in a glass of boiled water, to insist hour. To drink on 1 glass 2 — 3 times a day.
19. A grass of a horsetail field — 25 g, a grass of the St. John's wort which is made a hole — 25 g, a root of chicory ordinary — 25 g, a grass of a yarrow ordinary — 25 g. To fill in one tablespoon of mix with 1 glass of water, to soar 20 minutes, then to boil 10 — 15 minutes, to filter. To drink on 1 glass during the days.
20. In a disease of a liver and bilious ways accept the following mix: honey, lemon juice and little olive oil. After reception it is necessary to lie on the right side of 25 — 30 min.
21. Well also mix from 1 tablespoon of honey and 1 teaspoon of flower pollen helps. To accept twice a day, after breakfast and a lunch.
22. In cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis it is recommended to accept in the morning and in the evening 30 — 50 g of honey with addition of 1 spoon (like a spoon for mustard) a uterine milk.
23. To mix 1 kg of honey with 1 kg of blackcurrant. To accept on 1 teaspoon in 30 minutes prior to food. To continue before the mix termination.
24. With the medical and preventive purpose in liver diseases honey is recommended to apply in the morning (30 — 50 g) with addition of a uterine milk (one spoon to mustard), and after a lunch — a honey tablespoon with one teaspoon to a beebread. Effectively mix from one spoon of honey with apple juice works, to accept in the morning and in the evening.
25. Marsh acorus. In hepatitis apply infusion of rhizomes which is prepared so: to fill in a teaspoon of the crushed raw materials with a glass of boiled water, to insist 20 minutes, to filter. To drink 4 times a day on 1/2 glass in 30 minutes prior to food.
Prevention of hepatitis
1. Hepatitis A
Wash hands with soap under flowing water after a toilet, change of children's pampers thoroughly and also before cooking and consumption of food. It is the most important measure in prevention of infection with hepatitis A. If you travel to areas where hepatitis A is widespread, and there is no sanitation, boil water, peel vegetables and fruit before consuming. Accustom the children to wash hands. Change children's pampers on surfaces which can be washed and disinfected easily (for example, 1 tablespoon of household bleach for water liter). Never change pampers on tables where you eat or you cook food. It is necessary to be careful in preparation of mollusks, especially if you already have a chronic form of a disease of a liver. Drink water only from the resolved sources.
Tell the doctor if someone in your family has hepatitis A. In certain cases the doctor can appoint immunoglobulin injections to members of the family of the diseased.
Undergo vaccination if you are in a zone of high risk of infection or you plan a trip to the country with wide circulation of hepatitis A.
2. Hepatitis B and C
Practice safe sex. Do not use drugs. You do not share the chewing gum. Do not contact to open wounds, cuts, burns and blood of the infected person. Use only the razor, a toothbrush, cuticle scissors. Undergo vaccination against hepatitis B if you are in a risk zone, consult to the doctor. Many doctors consider that all have to undergo vaccination against hepatitis B. Now to children carry out vaccination in a planned order. In risk group there are health workers, dental technicians, active monogamous couples, addicts, people with a human immunodeficiency virus and also the people who are regularly carrying out dialysis.